That gets their attention. Slight pause, adjust voice for ultra shrillness, and…
To my surprise, many of my Year 9s spot the allusion – Fawlty Towers – though some think I’m referring to Basil Brush, and most look mystified.
We fondly recap on the health inspector episode -“it’s a rat, Manuel. Hamsters are small and cuddly. Cuddle that, you’ll never play the guitar again…”
…before I introduce a third Basil. Here he is:
Isn’t he lovely? All bright and green and perky? Well, what do you expect from M&S???
And, actually, there are four of them, but I start with one, placed on a balance.
We review possible changes to Basil, and they recall that he will probably lose mass because of water loss from his leaves. They can remember stomata and evaporation and gas exchange and so on. And then we record the starting mass: 374g.
Basil 2 weighs in at a similar 385g. But after putting him on the balance, I position a fan to blow air directly at him.
Basil 3 is a rather weedy 260g. He gets covered with a clear plastic bag.
And Basil 4 is a chunker, a bruising 451g. He also gets covered with a plastic bag, but this one is black.
So first important lesson of the day, M&S Basil plants all cost £1.50, so heft them carefully before you buy – the variation in mass is considerable!
Having carefully recorded all the starting masses, I ask them to write down predictions for how each Basils will have changed after 24 hours, when I see the class next. I also ask them to justify their predictions.
Moving round the lab, some need prompting to think about evaporation, some are wondering about growth, but I redirect them to transpiration – how will these treatments affect water loss from the leaves? I don’t mind if their predictions are right or not – I want them to think – so if, as some do, they argue that the black bag will absorb heat and thus increase evaporation, that’s fine by me.
And note that they don’t know what’s going to happen – this is not an experiment/demonstration to confirm something they’ve been taught, it’s a genuine investigation (though note the ease with which mass can be adjusted by a surrepstitious leaf removal or a sneaky out of lesson watering, if the results aren’t what you want…).
All of this takes 30 minutes, setting things up nicely for the hour long lesson the next day.
24 hours later, there is, happily, no need for such dishonesty. The Basils have behaved beautifully. We record the new mass for each plant and then I get them to answer the following questions.
- Work out the mass change for each Basil.
- Calculate the rate of mass change in g/hr.
- Explain why this is not a fair comparison.
- Now calculate the %age change in mass for each Basil and present this data in a suitable graph.
- Do these results match your predictions? Try to explain the differences between the plants.
- Which of the treatments is not properly controlled? What should we have done instead?
I was delighted with how well this worked. Firstly, the %age mass loss was exactly what you would expect – 25% for the windy Basil, 15% for the standard Basil, 8% for the Basil in the clear plastic bag, 5% for the Basil in the black plastic bag.
But the questions really got them thinking. They had to evaluate the experiment, process data, decide on the best way to present it, use SKU to explain the differences, and think carefully about controls. And it illustrated how even really bright students don’t immediately see what seems obvious to us. It took them a suprisingly long time to realise that the different starting masses made any simple comparison of mass loss invalid. Similarly, they needed a lot of prompting to realised that the black plastic bag altered both the humidity AND the light, though they were quick to suggest a better way of doing this when they did get there.
They all did super graphs – correctly choosing a bar chart – and they all talked intelligently about humidity and the effect of wind and, again with a little prompting, what might happen in the dark to reduce water loss still further.
We finish the lesson with my adaptation of the song from the musical Oliver, Fagin’s I am reviewing the situation… which I’ve turned into I am revising the transpiration.
Lyrics on request…
And next week, after further exposure to the fan, Basil 2 will look like this…
…and we can discuss wilting… and how to recover from it (wilted Basil responds brilliantly to watering).
And at the end of all this, 4 members of the department can go home with a Basil plant.